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Completion Poems

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Photos by Paul Warchol.

A "Completion Poem" is an original hybrid form for creative collaboration between human and machine. Using a text generator powered by OpenAI’s GPT-2 model — a predictive A.I. technology that performs basic reading comprehension, machine translation, question answering, and summarization — these pieces begin with a line of human poetry as input or prompt, then evolve into machine-written texts, which I lightly edit and curate into longer poem cycles.


For this poem, "Completion: Are You Ready for the Future?," I asked GPT-2 the same question a few hundred times, then curated the (frequently astonishing) responses.​


The Completion Poem below uses a line written by poet Ocean Vuong as the input. I sifted through hundreds of AI-generated responses, selected the ones that spoke to me, lightly edited for grammar, logic and formatting, then organized my favorites into a cycle of 10 sections.

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